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Final 2016-2017 Part A Period 6

 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
Congress of Vienna
B.
liberalism
C.
nationalism
D.
socialism
E.
romanticism
F.
Battle of Peterloo
G.
Great Famine
H.
Holy Alliance
I.
Karlsbad Decrees
J.
bourgeoisie
K.
proletariat
L.
Greater Germany
M.
laissez faire
N.
Corn Laws
O.
Reform Bill of 1832
P.
Marxism
 

 1. 

An alliance formed by the conservative rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia in September of 1815 that became a symbol of the repression of liberal and revolutionary movements all over Europe.
 

 2. 

A major British political reform that increased the number of male voters by about 50 percent and gave political representation to new industrial areas.
 

 3. 

A liberal plan for German national unification that included the German-speaking parts of the Austrian Empire, put forth at the national parliament in 1848 but rejected by Austrian rulers.
 

 4. 

The idea that each people had its own genius and specific identity that manifested itself especially in a common language and history and often led to the desire for an independent political state.
 

 5. 

A doctrine of economic liberalism that calls for unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
 

 6. 

Issued in 1819, these decrees were designed to uphold Klemens von Metternich’s conservatism, requiring the German states to root out subversive ideas and squelch any liberal organizations.
 

 7. 

An artistic movement at its height from about 1790 to the 1840s that was in part a revolt against classicism and the Enlightenment, characterized by a belief in emotional exuberance, unrestrained imagination, and spontaneity in both art and personal life.
 

 8. 

Which European nation—with the help of Genoese financiers, merchants, and navigators—initiated an exploration along the Atlantic Coast of Africa in search of new sources of gold, silver, and copper?
A.
England
B.
France
C.
Sweden
D.
Portugal
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
Red Shirts
B.
Homestead Act
C.
Crimean War
D.
Zionism
E.
Bloody Sunday
F.
October Manifesto
G.
Reichstag
H.
Kulturkampf
I.
Dreyfus affair
J.
People’s Budget
K.
revisionism
L.
Duma
M.
Tanzimat
N.
Young Turks
O.
German Socialist Democratic Party (SPD)
 

 9. 

The guerrilla army of Giuseppe Garibaldi, who invaded Sicily in 1860 in an attempt to liberate it, winning the hearts of the Sicilian peasantry.
 

 10. 

Bismarck’s attack on the Catholic Church within Germany from 1870 to 1878, resulting from Pius IX’s declaration of papal infallibility.
 

 11. 

A set of reforms designed to remake the Ottoman Empire on a western European model.
 

 12. 

A massacre of peaceful protesters at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg in 1905,triggering a revolution that overturned absolute tsarist rule and made Russia into a conservative constitutional monarchy.
 

 13. 

An effort by moderate socialists to update Marxist doctrines to reflect the realities of the time.
 

 14. 

What was the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916?
A.
An agreement between Germany and the Bolsheviks by which Germany funded Lenin’s effort to overthrow the monarchy in Russia
B.
An agreement between Great Britain and France to divvy up parts of the Middle East after the war
C.
An agreement between France and Belgium to establish a new German border after the end of the war
D.
An agreement between Germany and France to abandon the use of mustard gas
 

 15. 

What did orthodox economists believe in the 1930s?
A.
Remaining on the gold standard would lead to a relatively quick economic recovery.
B.
Governments should increase spending and accept large deficits to stimulate the economy.
C.
Balanced budgets were the key to economic growth.
D.
Governments should avoid limiting international trade by raising tariffs.
 

 16. 

The Ottomans divided their subjects into religious communities or
A.
Moriscos.
B.
Cossacks.
C.
Estates.
D.
millets.
 

 17. 

In the nineteenth century, what did Eugène Delacroix’s work typically feature?
A.
Gentle Wordsworthian landscapes
B.
Dramatic, colorful scenes
C.
The transforming power of industrialization
D.
Portraits of the rich and powerful
 

 18. 

In 1830, an unsuccessful revolution failed to re-create the country of
A.
Poland.
B.
Hungary.
C.
Switzerland.
D.
Belgium.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 19. 

Based on Map 20.1: The Industrial Revolution in England, ca. 1850, what appears to be the most important components of the Industrial Revolution other than coalmining?

mc019-1.jpg
A.
Textiles, iron, and machinery
B.
Machinery, hardware, and iron
C.
Machinery and consumer goods
D.
Pottery, iron, and machinery
 

 20. 

In Primary Source 20.5, what does Sarah Stickney Ellis advise the middle-class woman to do?
A.
Make sure that the servants understand what they are required to do during the day
B.
Plan the day so that it will be as entertaining as possible
C.
Meet with friends for tea and talk about the latest scandals involving acquaintances from the same social circle
D.
Think about how best to help those who need assistance
 

 21. 

Based on Map 20.2: Continental Industrialization, ca. 1850, where is the largest emerging industrial area located?

mc021-1.jpg
A.
Paris
B.
Prague
C.
Berlin
D.
The Ruhr
 
 
The following 5 questions refer to the cartoon below.

nar021-1.jpg
John Leech, Punch Magazine, “Capital and Labour,” 1843
 

 22. 

The three scenes at the top right of the cartoon best illustrate which of the following developments associated with the Second Industrial Revolution?
A.
government reforms intended to regulate public health
B.
increased production and demand for a new range of consumer goods
C.
the search for raw materials and markets for finished goods
D.
the emergence of mass-based political parties as sophisticated vehicles for reform
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 23. 

According to Map 23.1: The Unification of Italy, 1859–1870, what areas did Sardinia-Piedmont lose in 1860?

mc023-1.jpg
A.
Savoy and Nice
B.
Sicily, Tuscany, and Romagna
C.
Lombardy
D.
Venetia
 

 24. 

According to Map 23.1: The Unification of Italy, 1859–1870, which areas did Italy gain in 1866?

mc024-1.jpg
A.
Venetia and the Papal States
B.
Venetia and Lombardy
C.
Savoy and Nice
D.
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the Papal States
 

 25. 

The leading prophet of Italian nationalism and unifcation before 1848, Giuseppe Mazzini founded a secret society called Young Italy to ?ght for the uni?cation of the Italian states in a democratic republic. This selection, from the chapter “Duties Towards Your Country” in Mazzini’s best-known work,
The Duties of Man (1858), was addressed to Italian workingmen.
 Your frst Duties . . . are to Humanity. . . . But what can each of you, with his isolated powers, do for the moral improvement, for the progress of Humanity? . . .
 God gave you the means of multiplying your forces and your powers of action inde?nitely when he gave you a Country, when, like a wise overseer of labor, who distributes the different parts of the work according to the capacity of the workmen, he divided Humanity into distinct groups upon the face of our globe, and thus planted the seeds of nations. Evil governments have disfigured the design of God, which you may see clearly marked out, as far, at least, as regards Europe, by the courses of the great rivers, by the lines of the lofty mountains, and by other geographical conditions; they have disfgured it by con-quest, by greed, by jealousy of the just sovereignty of others; disfigured it so much that today there is perhaps no nation except England and France whose confines correspond to this design
 [These evil governments] did not, and they do not, recognize any country except their own families and dynasties, the egoism of caste. But the divine design will infallibly be ful?lled. Natural divisions, the innate spontaneous tendencies of the peoples will replace the arbitrary divisions sanctioned by evil governments. The map of Europe will be remade. The Countries of the People will rise, defined by the voice of the free, upon the ruins of the Countries of Kings and privileged castes. Between these Countries there will be harmony and brotherhood. And then the work of Humanity for the general amelioration, for the discovery and application of the real law of life, carried on in association and distributed according to local capacities, will be accomplished by peaceful and progressive development.
 Then each of you, strong in the affections and in the aid of many millions of men speaking the same language, endowed with the same tendencies, and educated by the same historic tradition, may hope by your personal effort to benefit the whole of Humanity.
 Without Country you have neither name, voice, nor rights, no admission as brothers into the fellowship of the Peoples. You are the bastards of Humanity. Soldiers without a banner, . . . you will ?nd neither faith nor protection. . . . Do not beguile yourselves with the hope of emancipation from unjust social conditions if you do not first conquer a Country for yourselves; where there is no Country there is no common agreement to which you can appeal; the egoism of self-interest rules alone, and he who has the upper hand keeps it, since there is no com-mon safeguard for the interests of all.

In Primary Source 23.1: The Struggle for the Italian Nation, what does Giuseppe Mazzini suggest must happen in order for "the work of Humanity for the general amelioration to be “accomplished by peaceful and progressive development”?
A.
An international governing body must be created.
B.
New countries must be created that are capable of establishing empires in the world outside the European continent.
C.
The pope must create a new Holy Alliance that will decide any diplomatic disputes that might arise.
D.
The people must rise up to create countries according to the natural divisions that exist in Europe.
 

 26. 

Until at least 1750, the practice of late marriage did not lead to a large number of illegitimate children because
A.
poor nutrition dramatically diminished women’s ability to become pregnant and to carry a child to term.
B.
sexual activity prior to marriage was extremely rare and harshly punished by the church.
C.
unmarried pregnant women commonly aborted their fetuses.
D.
of community pressure on a couple to marry when the woman became pregnant.
 

 27. 

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Spain faced terrorist actions by an insurgent movement of
A.
former colonial expatriates.
B.
Basque separatists.
C.
Catholic radicals.
D.
Muslim revivalists.
 
 
The following 3 questions refer to the excerpts below.

“The only way to erect such a common power, as may be able to defend them from the invasion of foreigners, and the injuries of one another, and thereby to secure them in such sort as that by their own industry and by the fruits of the earth they may nourish themselves and live contentedly, is to confer all their power and strength upon one man….”

Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, 1651


“87. Man being born, as has been proved, with a title to perfect freedom and an uncontrolled enjoyment of all the rights and privileges of the law of Nature, equally with any other man, or number of men in the world, hath by nature a power…to preserve his property—that is, his life, liberty and estate against the injuries and attempts of other men….”

John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government:
Vindication for the Glorious Revolution
, 1690
 

 28. 

The excerpts above can best be described as a response to
A.
conflicts between monarchs and elites over control of religious life, morality, and religious reform.
B.
conflicts stemming from the development of mass politics and nationalism.
C.
conflicts between the British monarchy, Parliament, and other elites over their respective roles in the political structure
D.
conflicts resulting from controversial Enlightenment ideas, exacerbated by short-term fiscal and economic crises.
 

 29. 

Which of the following would most directly challenge the ideas of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke?
A.
the aristocracy
B.
the bourgeoisie
C.
an absolute monarch
D.
mass political parties
 

 30. 

What did Rachel Carson seek to expose in her book Silent Spring?
A.
The consequences of the use of nuclear weapons
B.
The rampant overuse of pesticides
C.
The discrimination faced by colonial migrants to European nations
D.
The failures of the educational system to prepare future workers
 
 
The following 3 questions refer to the map below.

Industry and Population in Eighteenth-Century Europe
nar014-1.jpg
Found on p. 550 of A History of Western Society, 11th Edition, since 1300, for AP*
 

 31. 

Which of the following events most likely contributed to the differences in economic development shown on the map above?
A.
the Thirty Years’ War
B.
the French Revolution
C.
the English Civil War
D.
the Scientific Revolution
 

 32. 

The map above best reflects which of the following economic developments?
A.
new methods of transportation that improved the distribution of goods
B.
widespread industrialization in both England and continental Europe
C.
the putting-out system, or cottage industries, that produced goods for market
D.
a transatlantic trade system based on a demand for products
 

 33. 

What did Count Henri de Saint-Simon believe in the nineteenth century?
A.
Nature should be worshiped as a god.
B.
Ownership of private property was a crime.
C.
Sexual freedom was a necessary component of political freedom.
D.
The key to progress was proper social organization.
 
 
A.
Edwin Chadwick
E.
Joseph Lister
B.
Jeremy Bentham
F.
Georges Haussmann
C.
Louis Pasteur
G.
Dmitri Mendeleev
D.
Robert Koch
H.
Michael Faraday
 

 34. 

Made connect between aerial bacteria and infected wound and theorized that a chemical disinfectant would "destroy the life of the floating particles."
 

 35. 

French Chemist who developed the germ theory, who developed a test to monitor fermentation for brewers in 1854 to avoid spoilage
 

 36. 

Scientist that discovered electromagnetism in the 1830s-1840s, which lead to developments of the telegraph, electric motor, electric lights, and electric street cars.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
encomienda system
B.
Ptolemy’s Geography
C.
Mexica Empire
D.
Columbian exchange
E.
Inca Empire
F.
conquistador
G.
Treaty of Tordesillas
H.
caravel
I.
viceroyalties
 

 37. 

The exchange of animals, plants, and diseases between the Old and New worlds.
 

 38. 

Spanish for “conqueror”; Spanish soldier explorers, such as Hernando Cortés and Francisco Pizarro, who sought to conquer the New World for the Spanish crown.
 

 39. 

Also known as the Aztec Empire, a large and complex Native American civilization in modern Mexico and Central America that possessed advanced mathematical, astronomical, and engineering technology.
 

 40. 

A small, maneuverable, three-mast sailing ship developed by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century that gave the Portuguese a distinct advantage in exploration and trade.
 

 41. 

The vast and sophisticated Peruvian empire centered at the capital city of Cuzco that was at its peak from 1438 until 1532.
 

 42. 

The 1494 agreement giving Spain everything to the west of an imaginary line drawn down the Atlantic and giving Portugal everything to the east.
 

 43. 

A system whereby the Spanish crown granted the conquerors the right to forcibly employ groups of Indians; it was a disguised form of slavery.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
logical positivism
B.
existentialism
C.
id, ego, and superego
D.
functionalism
E.
stream-of-consciousness writing
F.
Bauhaus
G.
Dawes Plan
H.
Great Depression
I.
modernism
J.
theory of special relativity
K.
Popular Front
L.
Dadaism
M.
“modern girl”
 

 44. 

A literary technique, used by such writers as Virginia Woolf and James Joyce, in which a character’s thoughts and feelings are described as they occur as a means to explore the human psyche.
 

 45. 

Albert Einstein’s theory that time and space are relative to the observer, and that only the speed of light remains constant.
 

 46. 

A philosophy that sees meaning only in those beliefs that can be empirically proven; it therefore rejects as nonsense most of the concerns of traditional philosophy, from the existence of God to the meaning of happiness.
 

 47. 

A label given to the artistic and cultural movements of the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries; these movements were typified by radical experimentation that challenged traditional forms of artistic expression.
 

 48. 

Somewhat stereotypical image of the modern and independent working woman popular in the 1920s.
 

 49. 

A philosophy that stresses the meaninglessness of existence and the importance of the individual in searching for moral values in an uncertain world.
 

 50. 

Sigmund Freud’s terms to describe the three parts of the self and the basis of human behavior, which he saw as basically irrational.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
Ostalgie
B.
ethnic cleansing
C.
Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA)
D.
globalization
E.
European Union (EU)
F.
Maastricht Treaty
G.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
H.
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
I.
diasporas
J.
multiculturalism
K.
war on terror
L.
Muslim Brotherhood
M.
Arab Spring
N.
climate change
 

 51. 

The economic, cultural, and political alliance of twenty-seven European nations.
 

 52. 

The mixing of ethnic styles in daily life and in cultural works such as film, music, art, and literature.
 

 53. 

Independent organizations with specific agendas, such as humanitarian aid or environmental protection, that conduct international programs and activities.
 

 54. 

The basis for the formation of the European Union, which set financial and cultural standards for potential member states and defined criteria for membership in the monetary union.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
 

 55. 

According to Ludwig Erhard in Primary Source 28.2: Western European Recovery and the Promise of Prosperity, what is the importance of consumer credit?
A.
It enables common people to buy the same products as the wealthy.
B.
It allows for an expansion of production, which creates new income and purchasing power.
C.
It eliminates the need to wait until enough has been saved to make the desired purchase.
D.
It can carry an upswing of the economy as a whole.
 

 56. 

As seen in Primary Source 28.3: The Nixon-Khrushchev “Kitchen Debate,” when Richard M. Nixon pointed out the wonders of the model American house, Khrushchev often responded, “We have such things.” What other argument did he present?
A.
The items shown by Nixon were not needed in life; they were merely gadgets.
B.
Many of the American products were actually made in Japan.
C.
American products were often badly made.
D.
American materialism, represented by all the products, is soulless.
 

 57. 

Between 1981 and 1989, Ronald Reagan and the U.S. Congress
A.
cut defense spending.
B.
cut taxes and ballooned the government deficit.
C.
increased taxes on the wealthy.
D.
increased taxes and government-provided social services.
 

 58. 

In the eighteenth century, what was the focal point of community cohesion?
A.
The tavern
B.
The lord’s manor
C.
The marketplace
D.
The parish church
 
 
A.
Poor Law of 1834
D.
Social Darwinism
B.
Utilitarianism
E.
realism
C.
evolution
 

 59. 

A body of thought drawn from the ideas of Charles Darwin that applied the theory of biological evolution to human affairs and saw the human race as driven by an unending economic struggle that would determine the survival of the fittest
 

 60. 

Why did middle-class families spend considerable portions of their income on food?
A.
They developed a habit of purchasing expensive and exotic colonial products.
B.
The price of food skyrocketed as farm labor became more scarce.
C.
They gave frequent, large dinner parties as their favored social activity.
D.
They had to feed not only their families but their large staff of servants and assistants.
 

 61. 

How did Helmut Kohl’s neoliberal policies in Germany in the 1980s affect the Germany economy?
A.
The policies undermined economic stability, which led to a revival of socialist parties.
B.
The policies increased unemployment in heavy industry but led to solid economic growth.
C.
The policies reenergized German industry, resulting in low unemployment rates.
D.
The policies failed to revive Germany’s economy but resulted in a more equitable distribution of wealth.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
natural philosophy
B.
empiricism
C.
Copernican hypothesis
D.
experimental method
E.
law of universal gravitation
F.
philosophes
G.
rococo
H.
enlightened absolutism
I.
Cartesian dualism
J.
Haskalah
K.
law of inertia
L.
reading revolution
M.
cameralism
N.
public sphere
O.
rationalism
P.
salon
Q.
Enlightenment
 

 62. 

Newton’s law that all objects are attracted to one another and that the force of attraction is proportional to the objects’ quantity of matter and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
 

 63. 

The approach, pioneered by Galileo, that the proper way to explore the workings of the universe was through repeatable experiments rather than speculation.
 

 64. 

A group of French intellectuals who proclaimed that they were bringing the light of knowledge to their fellow humans in the Age of Enlightenment.
 

 65. 

The idea that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe.
 

 66. 

A theory of inductive reasoning that calls for acquiring evidence through observation and experimentation rather than deductive reason and speculation.
 

 67. 

An early modern term for the study of the nature of the universe, its purpose, and how it functioned; it encompassed what we would call “science” today.
 

 68. 

Descartes’s view that all of reality could ultimately be reduced to mind and matter.
 

 69. 

View that monarchy was the best form of government, that all elements of society should serve the monarch, and that, in turn, the state should use its resources and authority to increase the public good.
 

 70. 

What Florentine artist was commissioned by Pope Julius II to build his tomb and paint the Sistine Chapel?
A.
Da Vinci
B.
Raphael
C.
Botticelli
D.
Michelangelo
 

 71. 

Why did a unified Italian state fail to develop in the fifteenth century?
A.
The papacy prevented any movement toward unification, fearing a threat to its political authority.
B.
Political loyalty and feeling centered on a passionate attachment to the individual city-state.
C.
France and the Holy Roman Empire had too many land claims in the region to permit any unification.
D.
Italians were too culturally and linguistically diverse to realistically contemplate unification.
 

 72. 

Why did nationalists oppose the proposed European Union Constitution?
A.
They refused to abandon their national militaries.
B.
They feared losing political sovereignty and cultural identity.
C.
They believed other nations and people were inferior.
D.
They rejected the undemocratic nature of the EU.
 
 
The following 3 questions refer to the excerpt below.

That the various forms of epidemic, endemic, and other disease caused, or aggravated, or propagated chiefly among the laboring classes by atmospheric impurities produced by decomposing animal and vegetable substances, by damp and filth, and close and overcrowded dwellings prevail amongst the population in every part of the kingdom….
That such disease, wherever its attacks are frequent, is always found in connection with the physical circumstances above specified, and that were those circumstances are removed by drainage, proper cleansing, better ventilation, and other means of diminishing atmospheric impurity, the frequency and intensity of such disease is abated; and where the removal of the noxious agencies appears to be complete, such disease almost entirely disappears….
Secondly. As to the means by which the present sanitary condition of the laboring classes may be improved: —
The primary and most important measures...are drainage, the removal of all refuse of habitations, streets, and roads, and the improvement of the supplies of water.”

Edwin Chadwick, Inquiry into the Sanitary Conditions of the Poor, 1842
 

 73. 

The ideas expressed in this excerpt reflect which of the following subsequent developments?
A.
The revolutions of 1848 challenged the conservative order in Western Europe.
B.
Workers established labor unions and movements promoting social and economic reforms.
C.
Government reforms transformed unhealthy and overcrowded cities by modernizing infrastructure.
D.
Industrialization promoted population growth and gave rise to a longer life expectancy.
 

 74. 

The “cult of the Duce” (leader) promoted the image of Mussolini as
A.
an intellectual and scholar.
B.
a defender of Catholic values.
C.
a strong supporter of democracy.
D.
a powerful strongman embodying the best qualities of the Italian people.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
debate about women
B.
communes
C.
humanism
D.
popolo
E.
Renaissance
F.
Christian humanists
G.
New Christians
H.
courts
I.
patronage
J.
signori
K.
virtù
 

 75. 

Government by one-man rule in Italian cities such as Milan; also refers to these rulers.
 

 76. 

A term for Jews and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula who accepted Christianity; in many cases they included Christians whose families had converted centuries earlier.
 

 77. 

Sworn associations of free men in Italian cities led by merchant guilds that sought political and economic independence from local nobles.
 

 78. 

Magnificent households and palaces where signori and other rulers lived, conducted business, and supported the arts.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
enclosure
B.
cottage industry
C.
industrious revolution
D.
Atlantic slave trade
E.
putting-out system
F.
debt peonage
G.
economic liberalism
H.
Navigation Acts
I.
proletarianization
J.
Treaty of Paris
K.
guild system
 

 79. 

The treaty that ended the Seven Years’ War in Europe and the colonies in 1763 and ratified British victory on all colonial fronts.
 

 80. 

A form of serfdom that allowed a planter or rancher to keep his workers or slaves in perpetual debt bondage by periodically advancing food, shelter, and a little money.
 

 81. 

The organization of artisanal production into trade-based associations, or guilds, each of which received a monopoly over its trade and the right to train apprentices and hire workers.
 

 82. 

The shift that occurred as families in northwestern Europe focused on earning wages instead of producing goods for household consumption; this reduced their economic self-sufficiency but increased their ability to purchase consumer goods.
 

 83. 

The transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage-earners.
 

 84. 

A stage of industrial development in which rural workers used hand tools in their homes to manufacture goods on a large scale for sale in a market.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
Orientalism
B.
Meiji Restoration
C.
gunboat diplomacy
D.
global mass migration
E.
new imperialism
F.
Afrikaners
G.
Berlin Conference
H.
white man’s burden
I.
Great Rebellion
J.
Opium Wars
K.
nativism
L.
hundred days of reform
M.
neo-Europes
 

 85. 

A term coined by literary scholar Edward Said to describe the way Westerners misunderstood and described colonial subjects and cultures.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
Triple Alliance
B.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
C.
trench warfare
D.
Fourteen Points
E.
total war
F.
“war guilt clause”
G.
Petrograd Soviet
H.
mandate system
I.
League of Nations
J.
War Communism
K.
Treaty of Versailles
L.
Balfour Declaration
M.
national self-determination
N.
Triple Entente
O.
Schlieffen Plan
P.
February Revolution
Q.
Bolsheviks
 

 86. 

Peace treaty signed in March 1918 between the Central Powers and Russia that ended Russian participation in World War I and ceded Russian territories containing one-third of the Russian Empire’s population to the Central Powers.
 

 87. 

An article in the Treaty of Versailles declaring that Germany (with Austria) was solely responsible for the war and had to pay reparations equal to all civilian damages caused by the fighting.
 

 88. 

Unplanned uprisings accompanied by violent street demonstrations begun in March 1917 (old calendar February) in Petrograd, Russia, that led to the abdication of the tsar and the establishment of a provisional government.
 

 89. 

A 1917 British statement that declared British support of a National Home for the Jewish People in Palestine.
 

 90. 

A type of fighting used in World War I behind rows of trenches, mines, and barbed wire; the cost in lives was staggering and the gains in territory minimal.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
continental system
B.
Estates General
C.
National Assembly
D.
Great Fear
E.
Jacobin Club
F.
Reign of Terror
G.
second revolution
H.
Girondists
I.
sans-culottes
J.
Thermidorean reaction
K.
Grand Empire
L.
Napoleonic Code
M.
estates
N.
the Mountain
 

 91. 

The first French revolutionary legislature, made up primarily of representatives of the third estate and a few from the nobility and clergy, in session from 1789 to 1791.
 

 92. 

The laboring poor of Paris, so called because the men wore trousers instead of the knee breeches of the aristocracy and middle class; the word came to refer to the militant radicals of the city.
 

 93. 

The three legal categories, or orders, of France’s inhabitants: the clergy, the nobility, and everyone else.
 

 94. 

From 1792 to 1795, the second phase of the French Revolution, during which the fall of the French monarchy introduced a rapid radicalization of politics.
 

 95. 

The empire over which Napoleon and his allies ruled, encompassing virtually all of Europe except Great Britain and Russia.
 

 96. 

French civil code promulgated in 1804 that reasserted the 1789 principles of the equality of all male citizens before the law and the absolute security of wealth and private property, as well as the restriction of rights accorded to women by previous revolutionary laws.
 

 97. 

Copernicus’s theory of the universe
A.
used epicycles to explain planetary motion.
B.
was endorsed by the Catholic Church.
C.
postulated a sun-centered view of the universe.
D.
strengthened the Ptolemaic theory of the universe.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
republicanism
B.
millet system
C.
Fronde
D.
Junkers
E.
mercantilism
F.
Protectorate
G.
stadholder
H.
Peace of Utrecht
I.
Cossacks
J.
constitutionalism
K.
janissary corps
L.
Puritans
M.
boyars
N.
sultan
O.
Peace of Westphalia
P.
Test Act
 

 98. 

Free groups and outlaw armies originally comprising runaway peasants living on the borders of Russian territory from the fourteenth century onward. By the end of the sixteenth century they had formed an alliance with the Russian state.
 

 99. 

The ruler of the Ottoman Empire; he owned all the agricultural land of the empire and was served by an army and bureaucracy composed of highly trained slaves.
 

 100. 

A form of government in which there is no monarch and power rests in the hands of the people as exercised through elected representatives.
 

 101. 

A series of treaties, from 1713 to 1715, that ended the War of the Spanish Succession, ended French expansion in Europe, and marked the rise of the British Empire.
 

 102. 

A system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the state’s power; it was based on the belief that a nation’s wealth, specifically its supply of gold and silver, determined its international power.
 

 103. 

The name of a series of treaties that concluded the Thirty Years’ War in 1648 and marked the end of large-scale religious violence in Europe.
 

 104. 

What does neocolonialism refer to?
A.
The efforts of newly liberated colonies to establish their own empires by conquering weaker neighbors
B.
The idea of a system designed to perpetuate Western economic domination and undermine political independence
C.
Soviet attempts to extend their influence, particularly in the African continent
D.
The establishment of authoritarian dictatorships by corrupt African leaders like Joseph Mobutu in the Congo
 

 105. 

A young woman entering domestic service could expect
A.
to work hard on an endless array of jobs.
B.
to have a great deal of free time in which to enjoy town life.
C.
to attend weekly religious lessons at the local church.
D.
to be protected against abuse by municipal and state laws.
 

 106. 

Which of the following was characteristic of the rebellions that swept across Europe in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries?
A.
They were primarily political movements.
B.
They involved both rural and urban laboring people.
C.
They resulted in important reforms.
D.
They were treated with leniency by nobles.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
 

 107. 

As excerpted in Primary Source 26.5: George Orwell on Life on the Dole, in what way does Orwell see the working class in England coming to terms with the Great Depression?
A.
The working class has settled down to make the best of life on the dole.
B.
The working class has sunk into agonies of despair at the thought of never working again.
C.
The working class has allowed itself to be distracted by the cinema and the radio.
D.
The working class is very close to mounting insurrections.
 

 108. 

According to Map 26.1: The Great Depression in the United States and Europe, 1929–1939, which American states are in the Dust Bowl?

mc108-1.jpg
A.
Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia
B.
California, Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Missouri
C.
Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio
D.
New Mexico, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas
 

 109. 

How did German Social Democrats recover their losses in the 1907 election and become the largest party in the Reichstag in 1912?
A.
They began courting Catholics in southern Germany.
B.
They took on a more patriotic tone and broadened their base.
C.
They accepted trade unions’ call for evolutionary rather than revolutionary socialism.
D.
They endorsed Marx’s call for a violent revolution.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
Second Industrial Revolution
B.
germ theory
C.
companionate marriage
D.
labor aristocracy
E.
separate spheres
F.
thermodynamics
G.
suffrage movement
H.
sweated industries
I.
realism
J.
utilitarianism
K.
evolution
L.
Social Darwinism
 

 110. 

The idea that disease was caused by the spread of living organisms that could be controlled.
 

 111. 

A body of thought that applied the theory of biological evolution to human affairs and saw the human race as driven by an unending economic struggle that would determine the survival of the fittest.
 

 112. 

The idea of Jeremy Bentham that social policies should promote the “greatest good for the greatest number.”
 

 113. 

Which of the following marked changes in childrearing practices?
A.
The number of illegitimate children abandoned at foundling hospitals increased.
B.
Women increasingly hired wet nurses to free them to care for other children.
C.
Women had fewer children.
D.
Mothers increasingly depended on advice from their mothers and grandmothers owing to the lack of literature on childrearing.
 

 114. 

Why did the Directory continue French wars of conquest begun by early revolutionary governments?
A.
The Directory had an ideological commitment to liberate all of Europe from aristocratic domination.
B.
The Directory understood that big, victorious armies kept men employed.
C.
The Directory feared that without French intervention, Russia would dominate the continent.
D.
The Directory gave in to demands of the nationalistic populace.
 

 115. 

What was the result of Allied support of the White armies in the Russian civil war?
A.
It caused the Bolsheviks to initiate their policy of terror.
B.
It blocked the Germans from advancing into Ukraine.
C.
It helped the Bolsheviks, who could appeal to patriotic nationalism against the Allies.
D.
It helped the Finns to gain their independence.
 

 116. 

The English Navigation Acts mandated that all English imports and exports be transported on English ships, and they also
A.
gave British merchants a virtual monopoly on trade with British colonies.
B.
restricted English banks from making foreign loans.
C.
prevented the American colonists from building ships.
D.
created an alliance with the Dutch against the French.
 

 117. 

What did Klemens von Metternich and Alexander I proclaim at the Troppau Conference in 1820?
A.
Their agreement to send Austrian troops to crush the revolution in Spain
B.
Their willingness to allow the establishment of constitutional monarchies as long as male suffrage remained limited to the elite
C.
Their refusal to allow France to intervene in the revolutions in the Spanish colonies in Latin America
D.
Their support for the principle of active intervention to maintain all autocratic regimes whenever threatened
 
 
Source-Based Questions Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 118. 

According to Map 24.1: European Investment to 1914, which areas appear to be receiving the largest amount of British investments?

mc118-1.jpg
A.
The United States and Canada
B.
Latin America
C.
Africa
D.
Australia and New Zealand
 
 
The following 2 questions refer to the excerpt below.

“A man would never get the notion of writing a book on the peculiar situation of the human male. But if I wish to define myself, I must first of all say: ‘I am a woman’; on this truth must be based all further discussion. A man never begins by presenting himself as an individual of a certain sex; it goes without saying that he is a man…. [A woman] is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential as opposed to the essential….
The proletarians have accomplished the revolution in Russia, the Negroes in Haiti, the Indo-Chinese are battling for it in Indo-China; but the women’s effort has never been anything more than a symbolic agitation. They have gained only what men have been willing to grant….
The reason for this is that women lack concrete means for organizing themselves into a unit which can stand face-to-face with the correlative unit. They have no past, no history, no religion of their own; they have no such solidarity of work and interest as that of the proletariat.”

Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex (1949)
 

 119. 

The excerpt expresses de Beauvoir’s skepticism about which of the following trends?
A.
New modes of partnership and divorce gave women more options in their personal lives.
B.
Writers, like de Beauvoir, questioned Western values and addressed controversial social and political issues.
C.
Through the efforts of feminists, Western European women finally gained greater educational opportunities and access to professional careers.
D.
Women attained high political office and increased their representation in legislative bodies in many nations.
 

 120. 

Which of the following identifies the term race in the Renaissance?
A.
Groupings of people based on ethnic, national, or religious factors
B.
Groupings of people based on geographic origins
C.
Groupings of people based on noble lineage
D.
Groupings of people based on skin color
 
 
The following 3 questions refer to the excerpt below.

“Some years ago, as Your Serene Highness well knows, I discovered in the heavens many things that had not been seen before our own age. The novelty of these things, as well as some consequences which followed from them in contradiction to the physical notions commonly held among academic philosophers, stirred up against me no small number of professors—as if I had placed these things in the sky with my own hands in order to upset nature and overturn the sciences.”

Galileo Galilei, Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina, 1615
 

 121. 

Which person would most likely disagree with Galileo’s views?
A.
Martin Luther
B.
René Descartes
C.
William Harvey
D.
Isaac Newton
 

 122. 

Germaine de Staël urged the French to throw away worn-out classical models and extolled the spontaneity and enthusiasm of the writer and thinkers of
A.
Germany
B.
Austria.
C.
Spain.
D.
Russia.
 

 123. 

What did the Swedish response to the Depression involve?
A.
Increasing military spending
B.
Increasing social welfare benefits and state spending on public works projects
C.
Erecting trade barriers and putting the currency on the gold standard
D.
Balancing the government budget by cutting government programs
 

 124. 

Which of the following describes Eastern Bloc living standards in the 1970s?
A.
Below those of the West and equal with those in the developing world
B.
Well below those in the West but well above those in the developing world
C.
Far below those of the West and even below those of most of the developing world
D.
Equal with those in the West and well above those in the developing world
 

 125. 

Ottoman reformers launched a series of radical reforms in the nineteenth century known as the
A.
October Manifesto.
B.
Reichstag.
C.
Tanzimat.
D.
Duma.
 

 126. 

What was a major reason for the decline of Western European birthrates?
A.
Married women entering careers and the related drive for gender equality
B.
State policies discouraging childbearing
C.
Increasing rates of homosexuality
D.
The decline of religious belief
 

 127. 

What were the achievements of the Avignon popes before the Great Schism?
A.
They established political dominance throughout Italy and established a bureaucracy to govern the region.
B.
They forced Islam out of its remaining footholds in Spain and the Balkans.
C.
They reformed the financial administration of the church and centralized its government.
D.
They established direct papal control over the monastic orders and their clerical wealth.
 

 128. 

How did real wages for workers and peasants in the Soviet Union in 1937 compare with those in the Russian Empire in 1913?
A.
They were lower.
B.
They were marginally higher.
C.
They were far higher.
D.
They were approximately the same.
 

 129. 

What did Columbus believe he had found when he arrived in the Caribbean?
A.
Islands off the coast of Japan
B.
Islands in the middle of the Atlantic
C.
New, unexpected lands
D.
Islands off the coast of India
 

 130. 

In the eighteenth century, the West’s largest and richest city was
A.
Paris.
B.
Berlin.
C.
Vienna.
D.
London.
 

 131. 

How did the encomienda system function?
A.
The Spanish crown gave the colonists groups of Native Americans as legal slaves in return for tax revenues and promises of obedience.
B.
The Spanish crown adopted the Native Americans as “protected children” in return for promises of labor and tribute.
C.
The Spanish crown placed the Native Americans under the protection of the Catholic missionaries as long as they learned and embraced the Catholic faith.
D.
The Spanish crown granted conquerors the right to employ or demand tribute from groups of Native Americans in exchange for providing food and shelter.
 

 132. 

Why did a woman’s work receive less compensation than a man’s work?
A.
It was understood that a woman was either married or to be married and, therefore, not responsible for supporting a family.
B.
The traditional work associated with women was unskilled and, therefore, more widely performed.
C.
Women were largely secluded in their homes; therefore, their work was seen as strictly domestic and not worthy of compensation.
D.
Women did not seek to organize in guilds so that they could better influence wages and prices for their work.
 
 
A.
Charles Lyell
D.
Herbert Spencer
B.
Charles Darwin
E.
Ferdinand Tonnies
C.
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
 

 133. 

Evolutionary thinker whose voyage in 1831 help him create his theory "On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection"
 

 134. 

French Naturalist who asserted that all forms of life had arisen through a long process of continuous adjustment to the environment, a dramatic challenge to the belief in divine creation of species.
 

 135. 

How did the moderate Social Democrats in Germany put down the radical Communist Spartacist Uprising?
A.
They had the Catholic Church condemn the Communists and authorize parishioners to join in a revolt against them.
B.
They accused the Communists of being Russian spies and had them arrested on counterespionage charges.
C.
They called on bands of demobilized soldiers called Free Corps to crush the uprising.
D.
They called for a labor strike against the Communists until their movement collapsed.
 
 
The following 3 questions refer to the excerpt below.

“First, The policy of Europe occasions a very important inequality in the whole of the advantages and disadvantages of the different employments of labour and stock, by restraining the competition in some employments to a smaller number than might otherwise be disposed to enter into them.
The exclusive privileges of corporations are the principal means it makes use of for this purpose….”

Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and causes of the Wealth of Nations, 1776.  Excerpt from Book 1, Chapter 10: Of Wages and Profit in the Different Employments of Labor and Stock.
 

 136. 

Which political theorist would most likely agree with Smith’s argument about labor as expressed in the above excerpt?
A.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
B.
Karl Marx
C.
Niccolò Machiavelli
D.
John Locke
 

 137. 

What was an important factor in both the rapid growth of the American stock market in the 1920s and its collapse in October 1929?
A.
Buying on margin
B.
Overly optimistic stockbrokers
C.
The great increase in investments by giant pension funds
D.
Over-regulation by the federal government
 

 138. 

Who wrote Divided Heaven (1963), a classic example of a novel that provided a critical view of life in East Germany but did not directly oppose communism?
A.
Betty Friedan
B.
Helmut Kohl
C.
Christa Wolf
D.
Willy Brandt
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
The Institutes of the Christian Religion
B.
Protestant
C.
Edict of Nantes
D.
Spanish Armada
E.
Holy Office
F.
Union of Utrecht
G.
indulgence
H.
anticlericalism
I.
Jesuits
J.
predestination
K.
Huguenots
L.
politiques
 

 139. 

A document issued by Henry IV of France in 1598, granting liberty of conscience and of public worship to Calvinists, which helped restore peace in France.
 

 140. 

Opposition to the clergy.
 

 141. 

Catholic and Protestant moderates who held that only a strong monarchy could save France from total collapse.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
Brezhnev Doctrine
B.
postindustrial society
C.
stagflation
D.
developed socialism
E.
neoliberalism
F.
Velvet Revolution
G.
détente
H.
Solidarity
I.
New Left
J.
perestroika
K.
OPEC
L.
glasnost
M.
Ostpolitik
N.
Second Vatican Council
O.
privatization
 

 142. 

Doctrine that held that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any East Bloc country whenever it saw the need.
 

 143. 

Economic restructuring and reform implemented by Premier Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union in 1985.
 

 144. 

The progressive relaxation of Cold War tensions that emerged in the early 1970s.
 

 145. 

In their war of independence against the Ottoman Empire, the Greeks ultimately won the support of
A.
Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
B.
Austria.
C.
Great Britain, France, and Russia.
D.
the Netherlands and Great Britain.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 146. 

Why might Map 18.1: Literacy in France, ca. 1789 show the literacy rate to be relatively high in the area close to the capital city of Paris?

mc146-1.jpg
A.
The concentration of wealth in the area of the capital would help to support a high rate of literacy.
B.
Proximity to the royal court would encourage the growth of literacy.
C.
The support of high church officials headquartered in Paris would help to enable a relatively high rate of literacy.
D.
Educational facilities, publishing houses, and a vibrant intellectual life in Paris would work to assist the growth of literacy in nearby areas.
 

 147. 

In the eighteenth century, the biggest increase in British foreign trade was with
A.
France.
B.
Asia.
C.
the British colonial empire.
D.
the European continent.
 
 
The following 3 questions refer to the excerpt below.

“The policy of colonial expansion is a political and economic system…that can be connected to three sets of ideas: economic ideas; the most far-reaching ideas of civilization; and ideas of a political and patriotic sort.
In the area of economics, I am placing before you…the considerations that justify the policy of colonial expansion, as seen from the perspective of a need, felt more urgently by the industrialized population of Europe and especially the people of…France: the need for outlets [that is, for exports]….
We must say openly…the higher races have a right over the lower races….
I repeat, that the superior races…have the duty to civilize the inferior races….”

Jules Ferry, Speech before the French Chamber of Deputies, 1884
 

 148. 

Which of the following was an unintended consequence of the process that Ferry advocated for in this excerpt?
A.
Imperialism generated wars among rival European nations.
B.
Europeans justified imperialism through an ideology of cultural and racial superiority.
C.
The League of Nations distributed former German and Ottoman possessions to France and Great Britain through the mandate system.
D.
Non-Europeans began to challenge European imperialism through nationalist movements.
 

 149. 

The Allies adopted the principle of the unconditional surrender of Germany and Japan in order to
A.
encourage the home front in each Allied country.
B.
eliminate the need for a peace conference after the end of the war.
C.
make Germany and Japan aware that they would be severely punished after the war’s conclusion.
D.
further encourage mutual trust among the Allies.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 150. 

In Primary Source 30.2: The Slow Food Manifesto, Folco Portinari advocates, as an antidote to “Fast Life” and “Fast Food,”
A.
rediscovering the flavors and savors of regional cooking.
B.
boycotting McDonald’s and KFC.
C.
deleting all social media accounts.
D.
turning off the television during dinner.
 

 151. 

Lenin’s New Economic Policy was a political compromise with
A.
Russian peasants.
B.
urban workers.
C.
foreign capitalists.
D.
White counter-revolutionaries.
 

 152. 

What did the New Left advocate?
A.
The establishment of socialism with a human face that would avoid the worst excesses of capitalism or Soviet-style communism
B.
A return to anarchism and the formation of communes as the basis of a new life
C.
The restoration of classical liberalism with an emphasis on individual rights and economic freedom
D.
The establishment of socialism in newly decolonized states before capitalism took hold
 
 
The following 3 questions refer to the excerpt below.

“I shall speak very briefly on the study of the liberal arts, which for humans is useful and honorable, pleasurable and enlightening since everyone, not only philosophers but also the most ignorant man, knows and admits that it is by reason that man is separated from beasts. For what is it that so greatly helps both the learned and the ignorant? What so enlarges and enlightens men’s minds the way that an education in and knowledge of literature and the liberal arts do?”

Cassandra Fedele, Oratio pro Bertucio Lamberto, a Latin speech in praise of the arts and sciences at her male cousin’s graduation from the University of Padua, 1487. Translated by Diana Robin (2000). Found on p. 364 of A History of Western Society, 11th Edition, since 1300 for AP*
 

 153. 

Which of the following best reflects the type of education described by the author?
A.
the application of psychology in understanding human behavior
B.
the study of nature, emotions, and individuality
C.
the study of literature and ancient texts
D.
the application of scientific understanding to society and institutions
 

 154. 

Which countries in August 1939 signed a nonaggression pact that led directly to war?
A.
Germany and Italy
B.
Britain and Germany
C.
Poland and the Soviet Union
D.
Germany and the Soviet Union
 

 155. 

What was one of the social consequences of Peter the Great’s bureaucratic system?
A.
Only ethnic Russians were permitted to serve in the bureaucracy.
B.
Women were allowed to serve in a few judicial positions.
C.
Clergy were allowed to hold bureaucratic offices.
D.
People of non-noble origin were able to rise to high positions.
 
 
The following 2 questions refer to the excerpt below.

“Religion is important…in the French ghetto, it…protects against the France that excludes Muslims. To the European Muslim, it seems that all of the powerful in the world are in collusion to exclude Muslims—or are at war with them. The war in Iraq, on television, is the constant backdrop to Muslim life in Europe.”

William Pfaff, “The French Riots: Will They Change Anything?” The New York Review of Books, vol. 52, no. 20, December 15, 2005. Found on p. 1030 of A History of Western Society, 11th Edition, since 1300, for AP*
 

 156. 

The excerpt above best reflects which of the following historical trends?
A.
As non-Europeans became familiar with Western values, they began to challenge European imperialism through nationalist movements.
B.
Governments used Christianity as a motivation to counter Islam and as justification to subjugate non-Christian populations.
C.
Increased immigration into Europe altered its religious makeup, causing debate and conflict over the role of religion.
D.
Conservatives developed a new ideology, based on the idea that human nature was not perfectible, in support of traditional political and religious authorities.
 

 157. 

How did the Soviet Union initially organize the Eastern European nations as it threw out pro-Nazi regimes?
A.
It built independent governments that held free elections, all of which elected pro-Soviet political parties.
B.
It established direct military rule by the Soviet army with only a few local leaders in minor positions.
C.
It handed power directly to the national Communist parties in each region.
D.
It created coalition governments of leftist political parties but reserved key government posts for Moscow-trained Communists.
 
 
The following 3 questions refer to the excerpt below.

“What now shall I say about literature and scholarship in which all concede that Florence is the chief and most splendid leader?... For who is able to name a poet in our generation of the last one who is not a Florentine? Who but our citizens recalled this skill at eloquence, already lost, to light, to practical use, and to life…. Now the knowledge of Greek literature, which had been decayed in Italy for more than seven hundred years, has been revived and restored by our city…. Finally, these humanities most excellent and of highest value, especially relevant for human beings, necessary for both public and private life, adorned with a knowledge of letters worthy of free men, have originated in our city....”

Leonardo Bruni, Funeral oration for Nanni Strozzi, 1427
 

 158. 

What characteristic of political thought during the Italian Renaissance is raised by Bruni’s oration?
A.
the focus on creating a larger Italian state
B.
the overlapping nature of religious and political power
C.
the increased involvement of the people in political decision-making
D.
the emphasis on secular models of individual and political behavior
 

 159. 

Who assassinated Grigori Rasputin in 1916?
A.
German mercenaries
B.
Bolshevik revolutionaries
C.
Nationalistic aristocrats
D.
Agents of the tsarist police force
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
Black Death
B.
Great Famine
C.
Hundred Years’ War
D.
Babylonian Captivity
E.
flagellants
F.
Great Schism
G.
confraternities
H.
representative assemblies
I.
Jacquerie
J.
English Peasants’ Revolt
K.
Statutes of Kilkenny
L.
conciliarists
 

 160. 

Law issued in 1366 that discriminated against the Irish, forbidding marriage between the English and the Irish, requiring the use of the English language, and denying the Irish access to ecclesiastical offices.
 

 161. 

Voluntary lay groups organized by occupation, devotional preference, neighborhood, or charitable activity.
 
 
The following 3 questions refer to the image below.

nar023-1.jpg
L’Enfant de Fabrique (The Child of the Factory),
from Les Français Peints par Eux-Mêmes: Encyclopédie Morale du Dix-Neuvième Siècle
(The French Paint for Themselves: Encyclopedia of Morals of the Nineteenth Century)
,
vol. 1, 1841
 

 162. 

Which of the following developments is best reflected in the image?
A.
The cottage industry expanded as increasing numbers of laborers in homes produced for markets, reducing factory production.
B.
Peasantry, commercial agriculture, and serfdom developed, allowing nobles to retain economic control.
C.
Mechanization and the factory system became the predominant modes of production by the early twentieth century.
D.
Volatility in the nineteenth-century economy led to financial collapse, increased tariffs, and increased child labor.
 

 163. 

Why were Jewish immigrants in the nineteenth century unlikely to return to their native land?
A.
The high cost of travel back to Europe
B.
Violent anti-Semitism in Eastern Europe
C.
Laws against such repatriation
D.
The success they enjoyed in their new homes
 

 164. 

What was the primary goal of the opponents of the Nazis in the Protestant and Catholic churches?
A.
To ally the churches with liberal, democratic politics
B.
To overthrow Hitler
C.
To preserve religious life in Germany
D.
To voice dissent at Hitler’s racial policies
 

 165. 

How did the Soviet Union’s treatment of Czechoslovakia in 1948 demonstrate its intention to consolidate its hold on Eastern Europe?
A.
Even though the Czech Communist Party had won significant electoral support, Stalin still orchestrated the overthrow of the government and establishment of a one-party Communist dictatorship.
B.
Despite local protests, the Soviet Union established a massive military base in Czechoslovakia to in order to easily send troops throughout Central Europe.
C.
When Czechoslovakia appealed to the United States for aid, the Soviet Union forbade the aid and any Western officials from entering Czech territory.
D.
When Czechoslovakia sought to declare itself a neutral power in the conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States, Stalin ordered Soviet troops to invade and seize the government.
 

 166. 

In 1923, which German politician called off passive resistance in the Ruhr and agreed in principle to pay reparations?
A.
Ludwig Wittgenstein
B.
Stanley Baldwin
C.
Adolf Hitler
D.
Gustav Stresemann
 
 
The following 4 questions refer to the excerpt below.

1. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at….
2. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters.
3. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers....
4. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced.
5. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims….
6. The evacuation of all Russian territory.
7. Belgium must be evacuated and restored….
8. All French territory should be freed….
9. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.
10. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity of autonomous development.
11. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored….
12. Nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an unmolested opportunity of autonomous development….
13. An independent Polish state should be erected….
14. A general association of nations must be formed, for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.

Woodrow Wilson, The Fourteen Points, 1918
 

 167. 

Which of the following best reflects the U.S. government’s implementation of the principles articulated in the Fourteen Points in Europe following World War II?
A.
During the decades of the Cold War, the U.S. also engaged in several “hot wars.”
B.
Marshall Plan funds financed an extensive reconstruction of industrial infrastructure, stimulating growth in Western and Central Europe.
C.
The U.S. exerted a strong military, political, and economic influence as a leader of Western Europe.
D.
The U.S. pursued a policy of military, political, and economic isolationism after defeating the Axis powers.
 

 168. 

How did the diet of townspeople compare to that of the peasantry?
A.
The townspeople ate diets with many more spices and flavor additives.
B.
The townspeople ate more varied diets, since markets provided choices of meats, vegetables, and fruits.
C.
The townspeople ate more monotonous diets, since only a few foods could survive the long transport to market in edible condition.
D.
The townspeople ate diets loaded with meat and vegetables, while bread and beans, the diet of the peasants, played a minor role.
 

 169. 

What medication proved to be effective in controlling malaria and allowing Europeans to venture into the mosquito-infested interior of Africa?
A.
Penicillin
B.
Ladanum
C.
Aspirin
D.
Quinine
 

 170. 

The American stock market crash of October 1929 was primarily the result of
A.
the failure of Germany to keep up reparations payments.
B.
the government’s Keynesian economic policies.
C.
nationalist economic policies in Europe.
D.
an imbalance between real investment and speculation.
 

 171. 

As the Jacobins gained power, what was their reaction to women’s political activity?
A.
They permitted women who agreed with Jacobin principles the right to full participation in political life.
B.
They permitted women to participate as passive citizens, without the right to vote but allowed to participate in public debate and gatherings.
C.
They welcomed women as full political actors in their own right and with full civil liberties.
D.
They banned all women’s political activity, which they believed to be disorderly and a distraction from women’s proper domestic duties.
 

 172. 

How did the building of railroads in Latin America, Asia, and Africa facilitate Western economic interests as opposed to regional economic interests?
A.
Local political leaders accepted huge bribes to permit Western railroads to build across their land regardless of the economic damage caused by the building process.
B.
Railroad lines destroyed regional trading patterns by offering more profitable trade with Western markets.
C.
Local economies had no need for railroads since they already had extensive trade networks.
D.
Railroad lines connected resource-rich inland cities to seaports to facilitate Western trade but did not link inland cities to each other.
 

 173. 

Britain’s great rival for influence in India in the eighteenth century was
A.
the Netherlands.
B.
France.
C.
Spain.
D.
Portugal.
 

 174. 

How did the Nazis seek to legitimize their racial policies?
A.
They provided vast funding to both Catholic and Protestant churches in order for those churches to promote a racialized understanding of Christianity.
B.
They established research institutes and academies that measured and defined racial differences in order to present prejudice in the guise of enlightened science.
C.
They sponsored studies of cultures in order to prove that certain cultures were intellectually superior to others and that German culture was superior to all.
D.
They undertook massive genealogical research in order to demonstrate that different races derived from different ancestors.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
Cold War
B.
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON)
C.
Marshall Plan
D.
Christian Democrats
E.
Common Market
F.
de-Stalinization
G.
economic miracle
H.
Warsaw Pact
I.
socialist realism
J.
displaced persons
K.
NATO
L.
neocolonialism
M.
postcolonial migration
N.
Truman Doctrine
O.
decolonization
P.
nonalignment
Q.
guest worker programs
 

 175. 

Postwar refugees, including 13 million Germans, former Nazi prisoners and forced laborers, and orphaned children.
 

 176. 

The European Economic Community, created by six western European nations in 1957 as part of a larger search for European unity.
 

 177. 

Government-run programs in Western Europe designed to recruit labor for the booming postwar economy.
 

 178. 

The postwar reversal of Europe’s overseas expansion caused by the rising demand of the colonized peoples themselves, the declining power of European nations, and the freedoms promised by U.S. and Soviet ideals.
 

 179. 

America’s policy geared to containing communism to those countries already under Soviet control.
 

 180. 

Who benefited from the Black Death?
A.
Workers: Those who survived demanded high wages after the Black Death, increasing the standard of living for the broad mass of people.
B.
Merchants: They benefited from the demands for goods and food in devastated areas and expanded their efforts to form more uniform trade networks.
C.
Nobles: They gained more secure control over their land and over the serfs due to the protection they had provided during the plague.
D.
Kings: They were able to capture more land for their realms because many areas were depopulated and undefended because of the plague.
 

 181. 

Why were the Balkans considered the “powder keg of Europe”?
A.
Russia had destabilized the region by claiming control over the straits to the Black Sea.
B.
Famine caused by Austro-Hungarian trade restrictions had left the region struggling for survival and furious at Austrian policies.
C.
The Ottoman Empire had been forced to give up its territory in the region, leading to growing ethnic nationalism.
D.
The region had failed to begin the process of modernization, leaving it backwards and extremely poor.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 182. 

In Primary Source 16.1: The Sidereal Messenger, Galileo wrote about constructing a telescope and using it to view the surface of the moon. His observations led him to
A.
report that although he could see the moon more clearly than with his naked eye, he could not come to any conclusions about it.
B.
assert that the moon was uneven, similar to the surface of the earth.
C.
venerate the moon as an example of God’s handiwork.
D.
decide that the moon was indeed smooth, free from inequalities, and exactly spherical.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
Industrial Revolution
B.
spinning jenny
C.
water frame
D.
Crystal Palace
E.
iron law of wages
F.
tariff protection
G.
class-consciousness
H.
Factory Acts
I.
Mines Act of 1842
J.
Combination Acts
K.
Luddites
L.
steam engines
M.
separate spheres
N.
Rocket
 

 183. 

A term first coined in 1799 to describe the burst of major inventions and economic expansion that began in Britain in the late eighteenth century.
 

 184. 

A spinning machine created by Richard Arkwright that had a capacity of several hundred spindles and used waterpower; it therefore required a larger and more specialized mill—a factory.
 

 185. 

The location of the Great Exhibition in 1851 in London; an architectural masterpiece made entirely of glass and iron.
 

 186. 

English law prohibiting underground work for all women and girls as well as for boys under ten.
 

 187. 

A breakthrough invention by Thomas Savery in 1698 and Thomas Newcomen in 1705 that burned coal to produce steam, which was then used to operate a pump; the early models were superseded by James Watt’s more efficient version, patented in 1769.
 

 188. 

Who wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Man (1790) and A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), the latter a founding text of the feminist movement?
A.
Émilie du Châtelet
B.
Mary Wollstonecraft
C.
Olympe de Gouges
D.
Abigail Adams
 

 189. 

Unemployment in the United States averaged only 5 percent in the 1920s but in 1933 soared to about
A.
30 percent.
B.
40 percent.
C.
20 percent.
D.
10 percent.
 

 190. 

Wet-nursing practices included
A.
weaning a baby from nursing within the first year.
B.
rural wet-nursing conducted within the framework of a putting-out system.
C.
upper-middle-class women nursing their own children to prove their motherly devotion.
D.
working women typically sending their babies to a wet nurse in the neighborhood.
 
 
The following 3 questions refer to the excerpt below.

“Since I first went to Berchtesgaden more than 20,000 letters and telegrams have come in…I have seen enough to know that the people who wrote did not feel that they had such a cause for which to fight, if they were asked to go to war in order that the Sudeten Germans might not join the Reich…. 
Does the experience of the Great War and of the years that followed it give us reasonable hope that if some new war started that would end war any more than the last one did? No. I do not believe that war is inevitable.... It seems to me that the strongest argument against the inevitability of war is …hatred of the notion of starting to kill one another again….
I do not think that at any time there has been a more complete identity of views between the French Government and ourselves than there is at the present time. Their objective is the same as ours—to obtain the collaboration of all nations, not excluding the totalitarian states, in building up a lasting peace for Europe….” 

Neville Chamberlain, Speech to the British House of Commons on the Munich Crisis, 1938
 

 191. 

The ideas expressed in the excerpt most strongly reflect which of the following interwar factors?
A.
Wilson’s principle of national self-determination
B.
French and British fears of another war
C.
postwar bitterness and economic instability in Germany and Italy
D.
weaknesses in economies worldwide
 

 192. 

By July 1794, how had the central government in Paris managed to reassert control over the provinces and gain momentum against the First Coalition?
A.
It negotiated peace arrangements with all of the provinces, offering them control over conquered foreign territories.
B.
It harnessed the explosive forces of a planned economy, revolutionary terror, and modern nationalism into a total war effort.
C.
It bribed local officials by placing them into high government offices.
D.
It used its control over bread supplies to starve the provinces into obedience.
 

 193. 

Edward Jenner received financial prizes from the British government for
A.
introducing inoculation against smallpox to western Asia.
B.
introducing inoculation against smallpox to colonial North America.
C.
discovering the first effective method of inoculation against smallpox.
D.
discovering that cowpox could be used to vaccinate against smallpox.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
charivari
B.
community controls
C.
wet-nursing
D.
consumer revolution
E.
carnival
F.
Jansenism
G.
Methodists
H.
Pietism
I.
illegitimacy explosion
J.
blood sports
K.
just price
 

 194. 

A widespread and flourishing business in the eighteenth century in which women were paid to breastfeed other women’s babies.
 

 195. 

Members of a Protestant revival movement started by John Wesley, so called because they were so methodical in their devotion.
 

 196. 

Events such as bullbaiting and cockfighting that involved inflicting violence and bloodshed on animals and were popular with the eighteenth-century European masses.
 

 197. 

The wide-ranging growth in consumption and new attitudes toward consumer goods that emerged in the cities of northwestern Europe in the second half of the eighteenth century.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 198. 

List the satellite states found on Map 19.2: Napoleonic Europe in 1812.

mc198-1.jpg
A.
Prussia, the Kingdom of Sweden, and Great Britain
B.
The Confederation of the Rhine, the Kingdom of Italy, and the Kingdom of Naples
C.
The Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Norway and Denmark
D.
Spain, the Kingdom of Naples, the Kingdom of Italy, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and the Confederation of the Rhine
 
 
The following 3 questions refer to the image below.

nar011-1.jpg
The Villa Capra, designed by Venetian architect Andrea Palladio, constructed for a papal official in 1566. Found on p. 377 of A History of Western Society, 11th Edition, since 1300, for AP*
 

 199. 

The building depicted in the image above is an example of
A.
a romantic design emphasizing nature and emotion.
B.
new movements in architecture satirizing Western society and its values.
C.
a building commissioned by a Russian czar to enhance his prestige by imitating Western styles.
D.
a building based on classical styles emphasizing ideals of perfection and balance.
 

 200. 

The men elected to represent the third estate at the Estates General were primarily
A.
provincial nobles.
B.
businessmen.
C.
wealthy peasants.
D.
lawyers and government officials.
 

 201. 

In the 1950s and 1960s, what became the basic objective of all Western European governments?
A.
Political independence from U.S influence
B.
Prevention of Soviet expansion
C.
Securing control over colonial lands
D.
Economic growth
 

 202. 

What were Lutheran and Calvinist attitudes toward secular rulers?
A.
Lutherans taught respect for authority while Calvinists encouraged opposition to political authorities who were considered ungodly.
B.
Lutherans and Calvinists believed that secular rulers must be obeyed and respected no matter what their religious beliefs.
C.
Lutherans and Calvinists believed that secular leaders who violated the laws of nature must be opposed, while all others must be obeyed.
D.
Lutherans taught opposition to ungodly leaders while Calvinists taught obedience to all secular authorities.
 

 203. 

How did the Western powers react to the declarations of independence by Syria and Iraq shortly following the First World War?
A.
They placed the regions under the protectorate of the League of Nations.
B.
They invaded the two regions and defeated the independence movements.
C.
They reinforced the ability of the Ottoman Empire to reclaim the territories.
D.
They pointed to the declarations as models of national self-determination.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
totalitarianism
B.
fascism
C.
New Economic Policy (NEP)
D.
collectivization of agriculture
E.
eugenics
F.
Lateran Agreement
G.
appeasement
H.
Black Shirts
I.
five-year plan
J.
kulaks
K.
National Socialism
L.
Enabling Act
M.
New Order
N.
Holocaust
 

 204. 

A movement and political party driven by extreme nationalism and racism and led by Adolf Hitler; its adherents ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945 and forced Europe into the Second World War.
 

 205. 

Mussolini’s private militia that destroyed socialist newspapers, union halls, and Socialist Party headquarters, eventually pushing Socialists out of the city governments of northern Italy.
 

 206. 

A plan launched by Joseph Stalin in 1928 and termed the “revolution from above,” aimed at modernizing the Soviet Union and creating a new Communist society with new attitudes, new loyalties, and a new socialist humanity.
 

 207. 

What event directly prompted the Great Reforms in Russia, including the emancipation of the serfs?
A.
The revolution of 1905
B.
The Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905
C.
Russian defeat in the Crimean War of 1853–56
D.
The assassination of Alexander II in 1881
 

 208. 

Political power in the Dutch Republic was
A.
controlled by an oligarchy of wealthy businessmen.
B.
held by the stadholder and his royal courtiers.
C.
held by the central government.
D.
exercised by a democratically elected States-General.
 

 209. 

People of Spanish ancestry born in the Americas were referred to as
A.
Mulattoes.
B.
Peninsulares.
C.
Mestizos.
D.
Creoles.
 

 210. 

Why did Europeans find postcolonial migration troublesome?
A.
Immigrant workers were taking jobs away from European workers.
B.
Growing ethnic diversity threatened to overwhelm traditional European culture.
C.
The large number of immigrant workers drove down property values.
D.
Intellectuals worried that immigrant workers would never adopt European values and customs.
 

 211. 

What was Mikhail Gorbachev’s goal in bringing reforms to Russia?
A.
To revitalize the Soviet system in order to save it
B.
To merge capitalism and communism into a new economic system
C.
To prepare for a the collapse of Communist authority
D.
To secure the power of the Communist Party through more sophisticated systems of control
 

 212. 

As the nineteenth century progressed, the upper middle class
A.
tended to merge with the old aristocracy.
B.
formed tighter bonds with the rest of the middle class.
C.
increasingly turned toward socialism.
D.
retained its frugal attitudes.
 

 213. 

What was the goal of the Prussian parliament in the 1850s and 1860s?
A.
To establish a radical program of land redistribution in favor of the peasantry
B.
To undermine the authority of the customs union that controlled trade policy
C.
To form a Prussian alliance with France as a counterweight to growing Russian power
D.
To establish that it held final political authority and that the army was responsible to it
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 214. 

Read Primary Source 27.4: The “Reich Citizenship Law” and the Nazi Volk. What did the Official Commentary on the Reich Citizenship Law (part of the 1935 Nuremberg Laws) emphasize?
A.
The doctrine that anyone of alien blood, especially Jews, is automatically excluded from Reich citizenship
B.
The importance of protecting the rights of the individual
C.
The concept that Reich citizenship is open to all residents who support the political system and laws of the country
D.
The law that citizenship was available only to members of the Nazi Party and affiliated organizations
 

 215. 

What new model for European expansion did Britain establish in Egypt?
A.
A combination of trade, educational support, and technological assistance
B.
A combination of financial manipulation, indebtedness, and exploitation
C.
A combination of economic collaboration, political alliances, and mutual respect
D.
A combination of military force, political domination, and an ideology of beneficial reform
 

 216. 

Europe’s Muslim population, estimated in 2010 at 20 million, appears likely to grow by 2025 to 35 million, which would be what percentage of Europe’s projected population?
A.
10 percent
B.
2 percent
C.
4 percent
D.
8 percent
 

 217. 

Why did European slave traders in Africa adopt the “shore method” of trading in the eighteenth century?
A.
It gave Europeans more control over the slave trade by sending ashore slave-hunting teams to seize slaves and force them aboard.
B.
It relieved Europeans of the moral difficulty of separating families by having all slaves separated into unrelated groups of fifteen before the ships captains purchased them.
C.
It secured for Europeans supplies of slaves by establishing fortified trading posts on the coast, thus preventing wasted days at sea looking for slaves to purchase.
D.
It permitted Europeans to move easily along the coast, obtaining slaves at various slave markets and then departing quickly for the Americas.
 

 218. 

What did the Popular Front do after its 1936 victory in France?
A.
It launched a modest program of social reform in an attempt not to frighten businessmen or conservatives.
B.
It provided strong support for its sister Popular Front government in the Spanish Civil War.
C.
It encouraged the union movement and launched a far-reaching program of social reforms that included a forty-hour workweek.
D.
It adopted the program of the French Communist Party and appeared to be preparing for revolution in France.
 

 219. 

In addition to supervising labor and birth, what was a typical task of the midwife?
A.
Assisting physicians
B.
Treating mental patients
C.
Selling contraceptives
D.
Treating female medical difficulties
 

 220. 

Which country spearheaded the trend in scientific expeditions?
A.
Italy
B.
Austria
C.
Spain
D.
England
 

 221. 

The religious revival movement known as Pietism
A.
focused on an intensely intellectual approach to faith and belief.
B.
praised a stern moralism that imposed guilt on the believer.
C.
promoted a strict legal code for Christian obedience.
D.
called for a warm, emotional religion that everyone could experience.
 

 222. 

Why did members of the National Convention turn against Robespierre on the Ninth of Thermidor?
A.
They believed that Robespierre was soon to proclaim himself the new king of France.
B.
They believed that Robespierre might soon have them arrested and executed.
C.
They believed that Robespierre had betrayed the revolution by accepting bribes from Great Britain.
D.
They believed that Robespierre intended to extend the ideals of the Revolution so that slaves would be freed and Jews accepted as full citizens.
 

 223. 

The advancement in military weaponry and the space race
A.
fostered a revolution in computer technology.
B.
created a sense of the superiority of the United States.
C.
inspired a new literary genre called science fiction.
D.
established a confidence in the benefits of scientific discovery.
 

 224. 

Why did the Antifederalists oppose the new American constitution proposed by the Constitutional Convention?
A.
They worried that the individual states were too strong and the federal government too weak.
B.
They were disappointed that the constitution did not call for the abolition of slavery.
C.
They believed it was a mistake not to extend the vote to women.
D.
They feared for the individual freedoms for which they had fought.
 

 225. 

In the eighteenth century, many liberal thinkers believed that representative institutions could defend the liberty and interests of the people. What did this mean in terms of political practice?
A.
Voting for representatives would be restricted to men of property.
B.
Only members of the hereditary nobility would be eligible to vote for representatives.
C.
All adult males would be eligible to vote for representatives.
D.
The clergy would not be eligible to vote.
 

 226. 

Joseph II’s conversion of peasant labor obligations to cash payments
A.
remained in effect long after his death.
B.
had the support of the nobles.
C.
was opposed by both nobles and peasants.
D.
transformed a barter economy into a cash economy.
 

 227. 

The primary cause of the English Glorious Revolution was
A.
defeat suffered in the War of the Spanish Succession.
B.
a fear of the establishment of Catholic absolutism by James II.
C.
the 1640 uprising in Ireland.
D.
conflict between Charles II and Parliament over taxation.
 

 228. 

The tendency to hire family units in the early factories was
A.
replaced by the system of pauper apprenticeship.
B.
usually a response to the wishes of the families.
C.
outlawed by the Combination Acts.
D.
a government-sponsored response to urbanization.
 

 229. 

How did the Soviet Union and Eastern European Communist regimes treat displaced persons returning home after the war?
A.
As politically unreliable because of their exposure to Western European society
B.
As potential sources of support for unpopular regimes
C.
As additional burdens on already struggling societies
D.
As conquering heroes to be celebrated and honored
 

 230. 

In Historical and Critical Dictionary, Pierre Bayle demonstrated that
A.
the Bible was a fraudulent document promoted by the Catholic Church.
B.
the mind and body are united into one substance.
C.
all knowledge can be questioned and doubted.
D.
human beliefs are unified in their singular origins from God.
 

 231. 

What ultimately happened to Ukraine and Belarus, parts of the Russian Empire ceded to Germany in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
A.
The Soviet Union reconquered those territories during its civil war.
B.
They were established as independent nations.
C.
Germany incorporated most of those lands into its new, expanded empire.
D.
They were made protectorates of the League of Nations.
 

 232. 

How did some British women seek to affect British colonialism in India in the nineteenth century?
A.
They worked to improve the lives of Indian women, moving them closer to Western standards through education and legislation.
B.
They insisted that British welfare benefits be extended to British India in order to support the population during economic downturns.
C.
They called for an end to opium production in India because of its negative consequences for Indian families.
D.
They demanded that the British government establish limitations on the number of hours that Indians could be required to work.
 

 233. 

In the eighteenth century, railroad construction on the European continent
A.
generally followed the British pattern.
B.
featured varying degrees of government involvement.
C.
was much cheaper than it had been in Britain.
D.
was generally the work of private entrepreneurs.
 
 
The following 2 questions refer to the excerpt below.

“The dwelling I enter is tidy…the household objects shine…. The factory has not destroyed her feminine sense of delicacy….
‘A woman is always a woman; I suffered a lot from remaining for hours with my hands and face dirty…. [A]mong us there are women who seem fragile…well! if you saw them at work, you would be stunned: it’s a total transformation. As for me, I would never have thought I had so much stamina….
‘Our sense of…the national peril, of hatred for the enemy, of the courage of our husbands and sons—all this pricks us on….’”
L. Doriat, Women on the Home Front, 1917. L. Doriat was a journalist; this excerpt is from an interview with a French woman from Brittany who worked in a war munitions factory until she was severely injured.
 

 234. 

The excerpt best reflects which of the following postwar changes?
A.
The war democratized societies.
B.
The war reinforced the “cult of domesticity.”
C.
The war transformed the lives of women.
D.
The war created a “lost generation.”
 

 235. 

In 1954, Vietnam obtained independence from
A.
France.
B.
the United States.
C.
China.
D.
Great Britain.
 

 236. 

What occurred during the Hundred Days in France?
A.
Napoleon was driven from Russia.
B.
Napoleon returned from exile to rule France briefly.
C.
The sans-culottes committed the September Massacres.
D.
The Reign of Terror executed 30,000 people.
 

 237. 

The attack on the Bastille had what political effect?
A.
The peasantry revolted in the Great Fear and attacked noble manors across France.
B.
The king’s plans to reassert his authority were forestalled, permitting the National Assembly to continue its work.
C.
The Parlement dissolved the National Assembly until the people of Paris returned the Bastille to royal control.
D.
The National Assembly dissolved the monarchy and arrested the king for treason against the nation.
 

 238. 

Why did Stalin call for the mass murder of the kulaks?
A.
He believed that the religious faith of the kulaks would prevent them from adopting communism.
B.
As the kulaks sought to defend their homeland in eastern Siberia, Stalin feared that they would side with the Japanese over disputed land claims.
C.
The kulaks had sided with the counterrevolutionary White forces during the civil war.
D.
He believed that as landowners they would eventually embrace conservative capitalism and become great enemies of socialist progress.
 

 239. 

Where did Nazi administrators initially gain experience in mass murder?
A.
The murder of gypsies in Germany prior to the war
B.
The murder of Germans with physical and mental disabilities prior to the war
C.
The murder of Communists following the burning of the German Reichstag (Parliament)
D.
The murder of Poles during the invasion of Poland
 

 240. 

How did the Spanish respond to the trap set by the Inca King Atahualpa?
A.
The Spanish allowed themselves to be trapped but intentionally infected their captors with smallpox, which ultimately destroyed the Inca army.
B.
The Spanish entered the trap but then surprised the Inca with the use of cannons and defeated the Inca army.
C.
The Spanish ambushed and captured Atahualpa, holding him for ransom and then executing him.
D.
The Spanish withdrew from the region and cut off its supplies, starving the Inca army into submission.
 

 241. 

Why did the rapid economic liberalization of Russia work poorly?
A.
Russia depended too much on investment and management skills from abroad.
B.
Production of many items was concentrated in one or two giant factories.
C.
Russia lost access to many raw materials as its empire collapsed.
D.
The government passed too many economic regulations, effectively repressing entrepreneurship.
 

 242. 

What did Henry Cort develop?
A.
The puddling furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined with coke
B.
The steam engine, which became a major factor in the Industrial Revolution
C.
The first commercial steam ship, initially used in North America
D.
The first locomotive, after much experimentation
 

 243. 

One of the largest rebellions in seventeenth-century Russia was that led by
A.
Ivan the Terrible.
B.
Peter the Great.
C.
Michael Romanov.
D.
Stenka Razin.
 

 244. 

Why did Austria-Hungary deliberately choose war in July 1914?
A.
It hoped to seize Italian territory.
B.
It was prompted by the urging of Serbia’s enemies in the Balkans.
C.
It hoped to stem the tide of hostile nationalism within its borders.
D.
It believed Russia would not intervene.
 

 245. 

What did Germany’s Auxiliary Service Law require?
A.
That soldiers who had served their draft requirement reenlist in the military after a three-month break if they were healthy and fit for battle
B.
That all men between seventeen and sixty work at jobs considered critical to the war effort
C.
That colonial people serve in support roles in the German army
D.
That unmarried women join the medical corps to help take care of wounded soldiers
 

 246. 

How did the idea of “race” transform Europeans’ idea of their superiority over other peoples?
A.
European superiority was increasingly defined as culturally superior rather than religiously superior.
B.
European superiority was increasingly defined as biologically superior as well as culturally superior.
C.
European superiority was increasingly defined as religiously superior rather than biologically superior.
D.
European superiority was increasingly defined as culturally superior as well as religiously superior.
 

 247. 

What benefits could a wife produce at home that could not be purchased in the market?
A.
Improved emotional satisfaction and sexual fulfillment
B.
Better clothing and household goods such as candles
C.
Improved health, better eating habits, and better behavior
D.
Better education for children and intellectual curiosity
 
 
The following 4 questions refer to the excerpt below.

“I am not unacquainted with the word of Paul that women should be silent in church…but, when no man will or can speak, I am driven by the word of the Lord when he said, ‘He who confesses me on earth, him will I confess and he who denies me, him will I deny,’ and I take comfort in the words of the prophet Isaiah…, ‘I will send you children to be your princes and women to be your rulers.’… I send you not women’s ranting, but the Word of God. I write as a member of the church of Christ against which the gates of hell shall not prevail.”

Argula von Grumbach, Letter to the University of Ingolstadt
in Defense of Martin Luther
, 1523
 

 248. 

Which of the following theological reforms is best illustrated by Argula von Grumbach’s interpretation of the Bible?
A.
Social dislocation during the Reformation left city governments with the task of regulating public morals.
B.
Protestant denominations clashed with the Catholic Church and with each other to establish new religious practices and social values.
C.
The growth of secular power played a critical role in the success of the Protestant Reformation.
D.
The Reformation placed new emphasis on the individual’s direct relationship to God.
 

 249. 

What group of people benefited the most from large price increases in the sixteenth century?
A.
The urban working class
B.
The upper-DIFF: Level clergy
C.
The nobility
D.
The middle class
 

 250. 

John Calvin rejected the idea of free will because he believe it would
A.
undermine the idea of human sinfulness.
B.
detract from the sovereignty of God.
C.
eliminate the idea of the divine right of kings.
D.
undermine the need for the crucifixion of Christ.
 



 
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